Chandrayaan-3: India’s Monumental Leap in Lunar Exploration

3 min readAug 27, 2023


The mysteries of the universe have always drawn human curiosity. With space exploration embodying the zenith of human aspirations, India has once again marked its indomitable spirit in space odysseys. Chandrayaan-3, the recent addition to its lunar missions, serves as a testament to India’s space capabilities.

Chandrayaan-3: An Overview

ISRO, India’s spearhead in space missions, has over time launched three “CHANDRAYAAN” spacecrafts, each symbolizing “vehicle to the moon”. Chandrayaan-3, the third in this impressive line-up, saw its momentous launch at 2:35 pm on July 14, 2023, riding on the LVM3-M4 rocket’s prowess. This iconic event took place at the Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Sriharikota. This mission carried the aspirations of an entire nation, aiming for a successful soft landing on the lunar terrain, an objective that Chandrayaan-2 strived for but narrowly missed in 2019. The climax was reached on Aug 23, 2023, when the Vikram lander of Chandrayaan-3 touched the south pole of the moon, etching India’s name in the annals of space exploration.


Chandrayaan-3: A Comprehensive Snapshot

Designed as an advanced version of its predecessor, Chandrayaan-3 aims to establish India’s capability in executing a lunar landing and subsequent rover exploration. This sophisticated machinery encompasses:

  • An indigenous lander module (LM)
  • A propulsion module (PM)
  • A rover designed to pioneer interplanetary mission technologies

The LM’s primary role is to ensure a precise lunar landing and subsequently dispatch the rover, which then embarks on in-depth chemical analyses of the moon’s crust. Another significant component, the propulsion module, is responsible for transporting the LM and ensuring its transition from the launch trajectory to the final lunar path.

Spotlight on Lander & Rover

Vikram, the lander, is an engineering marvel designed for soft lunar landings. After establishing its position on the moon, it delves into its suite of scientific tasks. The Pragyan rover complements Vikram, functioning as a mobile lab. It’s equipped to traverse lunar terrains, capturing images and extracting essential data, such as temperature metrics and lunar samples.

Let’s have a look into some technical details of Chandrayan-3.

Distinguished Payloads

Both the lander and the rover are equipped with state-of-the-art scientific tools. Vikram houses instruments like Chandra’s surface thermophysical experiment and the Langmuir probe. The rover, Pragyan, is armed with the Alpha particle X-ray spectrometer and the laser-induced breakdown spectroscope.

Significant Data

  • Propulsion module mass: 2148kg
  • Lander module weight: 1752kg (including the 26kg rover)
  • Combined weight: 3900kg

Key Mission Objectives

Chandrayaan-3’s primary goals encompass:

1. Accomplishing a secure lunar landing.

2. Conducting rover operations on the lunar surface.

3. Orchestrating scientific experiments on-site.

The Implications for India

Chandrayaan-3 stands as a testament to ISRO’s capabilities. It underlines India’s unmatched skills in satellite navigation, understanding extraterrestrial environments, and executing lunar landings. Chandrayan-2 was agony for India and questions were raised. But Chandryan-3 proves again that failure is not to repent but to learn and bounce back. With this success, India can now look forward to many other space missions in the upcoming time and contribute to human knowledge of the universe.


India’s triumph with Chandrayaan-3 is not just a national accomplishment; it sets a global benchmark. By successfully planting its flag on the moon’s south pole, India has achieved a rare feat. The mission, astoundingly budgeted at 600 Cr Indian Rupees, underscores India’s prowess in space exploration. As Prime Minister Narendra Modi insightfully commented, “India has yet again proved that sky is not the limit.” The space horizon certainly seems luminous for India’s ambitions.

@ISRO @moon @space @India




The ASME Student Chapter at IIT Roorkee is an undergraduate club of students majoring in various fields of Engineering.